First, some background notes about Judaism, particularly about the "streams" of Judaism. In most of the world except the USA, Orthodox Jews (in which there are many subgroups including Modern Orthodox, Lubavitch, Satmar, etc.) who practice all 613 mitzvot (commandments) of both the written Torah and oral tradition are the majority. Liberal and secular (non-religious) Jews make up the minority.
In the USA the figures are reversed, with Reform, Conservative, Reconstructionist and Renewal Jews making up the majority (Reform the largest group) and Orthodox in the minority.
There are significant differences in belief amongst Jews, including whether the Torah was written by G-d or men. There is little that is not discussed, reconsidered, written about, argued about re the Sacred Books. That is the basis of Torah study: discuss, read what earlier Rabbis said, pick apart their arguments line by line, word by word, continue to discuss and learn in the process.
In addition to the religion, Jews are a People. Just like the Irish, or the Navajos, or the Kurds, etc. With varying cultures, since our People was dispersed from our homeland in waves beginning over 2000 years ago. So when people say, Jews say this, Zionists believe that, etc., I cringe, knowing full well that we speak many languages, come from many cultures, and rarely agree amongst ourselves. We're just normal people, living our lives as best we can, having faced more than 2000 years of dispersion, prejudice and worse. Yes, we are self-protective, or we'd have ceased to exist long ago.
As a child grows up there's often a rebellion against parents. In the case of Abrahamic religions, rebellion has often been violent.
Judaism was a rebellion against Paganism, perhaps also matriarchalism, both its parents. The Old Testament, which Jews call the Torah, details many battles against idol worshipers and early Hebrews struggled to believe in one, all powerful G-d they could not comprehend with the senses (was too grand to be seen, heard, felt), could not build idols to worship, which was the norm in those times. The Torah describes a people who needed time to lose their earlier beliefs in idol worship, whose new belief in one G-d made them powerful in certain ways. Whether they were Chosen, or as I believe Choosing, was not the question. Their survival was based on how they could protect themselves, their territory, their culture, as was the case for all people then (and now).
Christianity was born of Judaism (Jesus was a Jewish teacher) during a time when Jews were hoping for G-d's help in their struggle against Roman imperialism. As the new, Christian religion became strong, infiltrating the Roman leadership, its Holy Books incorporated some rebellious texts, which throughout history have come back to do harm to Jews and other non-believers in Christianity. Christianity saw itself as the true successor to Judaism, and couldn't understand how Jews could continue to exist, since Judaism was old-fashioned, superceded by Christianity itself.
Islam sees itself as the "True" successor to both Judaism and Christianity. The same story of rebellion against earlier truths, played out a little later in history. Some of its beliefs follow the same pattern. It feels it has the "real" words of G-d, rebelling against its parents, both Christianity and Judaism, and their perceived faults, in order to separate, to grow into adulthood.
It's normal for teens to rebel against their parents. The real test is how adult children treat their parents: with tolerance, with respect, with love, with hatred, or by ignoring them altogether. Both Christianity and Islam are made up of varying "streams" or denominations as is Judaism, all of us are struggling with our rebellious beliefs re our predecessors. We can only hope and pray that all people, no matter their religious beliefs or non-beliefs, will come to see that we are all struggling to live our lives in peace. And therefore develop tolerance, respect and love for the "Other", whomever that might be.
WWII shocked Christians into rethinking their relations with Jews
After WWII, with the modern attempt in a highly civilized Christian country to annihilate the Jewish people once and for all, Christians were thoroughly shocked by what nearly happened. Christians began inter-religious dialogue with Jews for the first time in history, only 60 years ago.
I remember well Pope John Paul II's efforts to heal the wounds of history between Christians and Jews more recently. I attended an inter-religious dialogue convoked by the Pope in Rome in 1999, as a Jewish participant, though not as a presenter. The dialogue was part of his preparation for the events of the year 2000, including his historic visit to Yad Vashem (Holocaust Memorial) in Jerusalem, where he said: ""I assure the Jewish people the Catholic Church ... is deeply saddened by the hatred, acts of persecution and displays of anti-Semitism directed against the Jews by Christians at any time and in any place", and he added that there were "no words strong enough to deplore the terrible tragedy of the Holocaust".
As we hold out our hands to each other across ages of misunderstanding, it helps to understand that rebelliousness of youth must be rejected if we are to accept our rightful places at the table of the family of humanity.